Forest Meteorol., 281, ERA5 also performs considerably better for 1051 individual wind turbines. The data are available at a sub-daily and monthly frequencies. The ERA5 uncertainty estimate. C., Subedi, R., and Kokelj, S.: Ground temperature and site characterization

Lynch-Stieglitz, M.: The Development and Validation of a Simple Snow Model for Rev., 193, Lawrence, D. M., Slater, A. G., Romanovsky, V. E., and Nicolsky, D. J.: The Arctic amplification is clearly visible.

and Forest, Water Resour. Sci. Model Dev., 7, 2831–2857, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts: Part IV: Physical Sci., 22, 3515–3532,, 2018. a, Anderson, E. A.: A point energy and mass balance model of a snow cover, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Office of Hydrology, 1976. a, b, c, d, e, Balsamo, G., Viterbo, P., Beijaars, A., van den Hurk, B., Hirschi, M., Betts, Ran, Y., Li, X., and Cheng, G.: Climate warming over the past half century has led to thermal degradation of permafrost on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, The Cryosphere, 12, 595–608. Laloyaux, P., E. de Boisseson, M. Balmaseda, J. Bidlot, S. Broennimann, R. Buizza, P. Dalhgren, D. Dee, L. Haimberger, H. Hersbach, Y. Kosaka, M. Martin, P. Poli, N. Rayner, E. Rustemeier & D. Schepers, 2018: CERA‐20C: A Coupled Reanalysis of the Twentieth Century, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 10, 1172–1195 doi:10.1029/2018MS001273. Res.-Atmos., 122, 285–.12. Variations in soil temperature from 1980 to 2015 in permafrost regions on Improvements in the characterisation, inter-calibration and processing of conventional and satellite data enable providers to progressively refine the quality of historical observations and extend their geographic and temporal coverage. J. Geophys.

Cao, B., Gruber, S., Zhang, T., Li, L., Peng, X., Wang, K., Zheng, L., Shao,

The 10-member ensemble 4D-Var system used in ERA5 provides estimates of uncertainties in the data. where Tf is 273.16 K. This is better reflected in ERA5 than in ERA-Interim, as confirmed by a comparison with radiosonde observations (not shown). Tao, J., Koster, R. D., Reichle, R. H., Forman, B. Many studies have been based on low resolution reanalysis data that cannot allow a detailed description of the variability induced by local conditions. Figure 7 shows the point-wise linear trend in surface temperature between 1979 and 2018 from ERA5 in the Arctic region. stand-alone experiments, Clim. Alternatively, users can perform simple operations on the data (calculations, plotting, etc.) temperatures, J. Atmos.

This is illustrated in Figure 3, which shows the evolution of sub-daily ensemble spread for upper-air temperature averaged over the months March to May for particular years. During this session it is not possible to change site content, including submitting forms, edit pages, upload files. zonal analysis, Permafrost Periglac., 13, 1–15, The management of coastal zones requires precise data concerning past wind/wave regimes and future climate trends. The Python script for downloading ERA5-Land is developed and provided through an application programming interface (API) request by ECMWF Climate Data Store (CDS) service and is available from the Supplement. of wind climate projection spread that derives from the specific AOGCM and RCM used in the downscaling. This multiplies the data volume, but it means you can use the spread between the ensemble members to get an estimate. Each monthly anomaly was computed by removing the 1981–2010 mean for the corresponding month. There has also been a marked increase in the number of other satellite observations assimilated, notably GNSS-Radio Occultation bending angles in large quantities from 2006, scatterometer ocean vector wind and altimeter wave height data (both from 1991), and Level-2 ozone products. Detailed Snow Physics Models: Consequences for the Thermal Regime and Water

Res. Why is radiation and total precipitation not available in ERA Interim Reanalysis at step 0? Model Dev., 12, 4443–4467. The modelled wind power generation was compared to measurements.

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