7). The Lateran Treaty was signed on February 11, 1929 by Cardinal Gasparri (representing Pope Pius XI) and Benito Mussolini (representing King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy). Immersive Vatican Museums, Sistine Chapel & St. Peter's Basilica. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The pope was once again ruler of a sovereign nation and in no way subject to an earthly potentate. There are at least three theories that have been proposed as to what this deadly wound was: According to theory 1, the deadly wound was healed in 1929, by the Lateran Treaty, when Mussolini gave the area of the papal states (now Vatican City in Rome) back to the Catholic Church reversing the capture of the pope in 1798. The Lateran Treaty was an accord of 1929 between Italy and the Vatican. All Rights Reserved. The state agreed by article 36 of the concordat to permit religious instruction in the public primary and secondary schools and conceded to the bishops the right to appoint or dismiss those who imparted such instruction and to approve the textbooks that they used.

We could ask: has all the world wondered after the beast since 1929 or is that yet to come? Catholicism became the religion of Italy; marriage laws were placed under the rule of the Church, and Catholic religious training was included in every school. While Pope John Paul II (theory 3) was very popular, he did not completely fulfill the specifications and his papacy did not see the fulfillment of other particulars of the prophecy.

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Quick Reference (1929). Get inspired by the Vatican's, Essential Sistine Chapel Tour, Vatican Museum & St. Peter's Basilica. Signed in the Lateran Palace, the treaties ended a 59-year-old conflict between the two signatories and created Vatican City as an independent nation with the pope as head of state. He would have all the privileges of that position and his person was considered both sacred and inviolate. The largest of the many independent Italian states were those controlled by the pope, who at the time was Pius IX (r. 1846-78), a serious stumbling block to Italian unification. Mussolini and others were convinced that by isolating the pope’s rule to Vatican City (108 acres of land) that the pope’s influence on political issues would be greatly diminished. The Catholic clergy would take no part in politics, and each bishop would take a vow so stating. Lateran and Laterano are the shared names of several buildings in Rome.

Comprising more than 16,000 square miles with over 3 million inhabitants, these states were under temporal rule, governed by the Holy See.

History, View all reference entries The Laterani lost their properties to Emperor Constantine who gave them to the Catholic Church in 311. Beginning in 1850, King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia started his quest to consolidate all of Italy under one government and become the king of a unified Italy. From:  It will be completely healed when it has regained the power it had at its height. A number of additional measures were agreed upon. Vatican City was created as a separate nation-state independent of Italy, with the pope as head of state. Treaty comes into force the Italian Government will see to it that the territory forming Vatican City is freed from every lien and from possible occupants. This was even (quite possibly inadvertently) referred to in a news article the next day in the San Francisco Chronicle for Tuesday, February 12, 1929 with the words "Healed wound of many years.". This treaty between the Italian government and the Holy See settled the position of Rome as the capital of Italy and established the Vatican City as a sovereign state. Compensation to the Vatican for the Papal States was the equivalent of approximately $92 million in currency and bonds. ». Our Vatican tour explores masterpieces of the Vatican Museums, Sistine Chapel & St. Peter's Basilica, with expedited entrance tickets. The new concordat also affected such diverse areas as tax exemptions for religious institutions and ownership of the Jewish catacombs.

Omissions? CONCILIATION TREATY In the name of the Most Holy Trinity. The Italian government agreed to build and fund, inside Vatican City, a railway station with access to the Italian train system, telephone and telegraph capability, a radio station and a post office. It resulted in the creation of the independent state of the Vatican City and granted the Holy See full independence from the Italian government. Lateran Treaty  It was signed by Benito Mussolini for the Italian government and by cardinal secretary of state Pietro Gasparri for the papacy and confirmed by the Italian constitution of 1948. In 1984 the treaty was changed, including eliminating Catholicism as the official religion of Italy, and made Catholic schooling for children optional.

Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). The pope adamantly declined, believing that such agreement would be tantamount to placing the papacy under the rule of and subject to the king of Italy. Benito Mussolini Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... A Study of History: Who, What, Where, and When? … For if the Roman Pontiff were subject to the sway of another ruler, but no longer possessed civil power, neither his position nor the acts of the Apostolic ministry would be exempt from the authority of the other ruler” (No.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ». Succeeding governments of Italy have all honored the treaty. This situation would become known throughout the world as the Roman Question. The Lateran Treaty catapulted the pope onto the world stage. So the Lateran Treaty remains as the basis for one theory on the nature of the healing of the deadly wound of Revelation Chapter 13. The papal domain, once over 16,000 square miles, was reduced to the Vatican’s one-sixth of a square mile. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. By 1860, an area known as the Papal States sliced through the center of the Italian Peninsula. According to theory 2, the deadly wound is yet in process of being healed as the Vatican gains more influence and control over worldly affairs. Succeeding governments of Italy have all honored the treaty. Article 1, for example, gave the city of Rome a special character as the “centre of the Catholic world and place of pilgrimage.” Article 20 stated that all bishops were to take an oath of loyalty to the state and had to be Italian subjects speaking the Italian language. Pius subsequently denied Italian Catholics from voting in national elections and excommunicated everyone involved with taking over the papal territories. », View all related items in Oxford Reference », Search for: 'Lateran Treaty' in Oxford Reference ». On September 20, 1870, after the French garrison protecting the pope departed to fight in the Franco-Prussian war, King Victor’s army forcibly occupied Rome.

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