ll *.???

Find out the size and modification time of the .bash_history file in every users home directory. This provides a convenient and common way for all Linux programs to handle wildcards. Or how about every file with a three letter extension. The mechanism here is actually kinda interesting.

Wir haben die oben genannten Dateien erstellt: Wenn wir alle Dateien, die mit O beginnen, mit d enden und zwei Zeichen dazwischen haben, anzeigen wollen, müssen wir die folgende Syntax verwenden: Um alle Dateien anzuzeigen, die mit O beginnen und unabhängig von der Anzahl der Zeichen dazwischen mit d enden, müssen wir die folgende Syntax verwenden: Um alle Dateien anzuzeigen, die mit O beginnen, mit d enden, und a oder c dazwischen haben, müssen wir die folgende Syntax verwenden: Überwachen des Netzwerkstatus mit netstat, Speicherverbrauch von Verzeichnissen ermitteln. m – starting from letter m The examples above illustrate how the wildcards work but you may be wondering what use they actually are. *** Wildcards in Linux are very useful in day-to-day work. In the above example, it moves all the files ending with “.txt” to the directory named foo1. So *.txt means all the files ending with “.txt” and whatever character in the front. (.bash_history is a file in a typical users home directory that keeps a history of commands the user has entered on the command line.

If we put one or more characters into [ ], it will list the files containing that character. The problem was that they all operated on a single file at a time, not very efficient.

ls m?r* What does it means ?

Can you list files whose name is 4 characters long. To indicate the range we should use “..”  as below. eg_1 : Guess we need to create a set of text files starts from 0 to 9. 2) ?

You guess a pattern of characters and can be used wildcards to represent that.

And finally the range operator ( [ ] ).

ii) In the middle of the name there should be a number in between 3 to 9. We can use { } wildcard.

eg_2 : Guess we have some files as below. ?d entspricht allem, was mit O beginnt, mit d endet und zwei Zeichen dazwischen hat (wie Oind, Okhd, Oerd, aber nicht Oereed, Oad, Oerererd).

When we offer it this command it sees that we have used wildcards and so, before running the command ( in this case ls ) it replaces the pattern with every file or directory (ie path) that matches that pattern.

So we need to list all the text files. In this example we are looking for each file whose second letter is i. It checks the matches that starts with foo and the rest of the name can be anything. : This represents a single any character.

Wildcards work just the same if the path is absolute or relative. On first glance you may assume that the command above ( ls ) receives the argument b* then proceeds to translate that into the required matches. If we need to list files inside of all those directories, can be used the * wildcard as foo*. ? No new commands introduced in this section. eg_4 : Guess you need to move all the text files to another directory. In DOS, the program (not the shell) must have the intelligence to handle wildcards. It’s like a pattern of characters. 4) { } : Used to create multiple files. i) starting with any characters ( can be zero characters or any number of character).

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